Nature remains an enigma. A living nightmare yet remains awake day and night. There must be a mysterious side to its origin. Nature has various activities, it does everything, making something up to destroying it, beyond its carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the capacity of the earth to tolerate something. If the capacity exceeds than the disaster occurs. Disasters may be natural or manmade. Natural disaster is
Natural disaster is not a new phenomenon , it has been occurring since origin of the earth and will last till its existence. We can not stop the occurrence of natural disasters but we can mitigate its rate of occurrence and the damage caused by it.
During the past few
From the past few years, there has been a controversy on the topic of natural disaster and the human role. A lot of environmentalists blame the human practices, rapidly growing developmental activities for the rise in
Main causes of natural disaster
- Earthquake: Earthquake is the shaking of the earth crust caused by the release of the energy. It is caused due to the break of the lithosphere along its fault. This sudden break releases the energy which in turn give rise the seismic waves that cause the shaking of the ground; this movement is called tectonic movement. Sometimes earthquake is also caused by the vibrations in the earth crust due to volcanic eruptions.
- Volcano: Volcanoes are formed due to the release of hot molten magma through the cracks or weak spots. The magma when bursts out of the earth
isknown as lava. The pressure build-up inside the earth crust due to tectonic movement is released out into the air causing the volcanic eruption. When the volcano erupts, the magma becomes lava and bursts into the air which rundown along the side of the volcano.
- Flood: Flood is the overflow of water due to heavy rainfall that submerges the land usually dry. When there is heavy rainfall, the level of water in rivers rises up and overflows. There are different causes of floods. The main cause of the flood is heavy rains. Sometimes it is due overflowing of rivers along its side, breaking of dams, urban drainage basins, the decrease of water holding capacity of the soil, lack of vegetations, storms, and tsunamis. Melting of glaciers as a result of rising in temperature due to global warming is the major cause of devastating floods in the mountainous region, this phenomenon is known as Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GOLF’s).
- Landslides: Landslide is the sliding or breakup or downhill flow of rock, mud and water along with the particles that come across its way. When soil absorbs more water in rainy season, the landmass becomes heavy. This heavy soil of mountain gets pulled down due to gravity, which leads to landslide. The main cause of landslide is supposed to be deforestation along with heavy rainfall. Sometimes flooding, earthquakes, volcanoes and simple weathering processes also causes the landslides.
- Hurricanes: Hurricane is the a storm with a intense speed of 118km/hr. Warm air, moist air and light upper level winds are the key ingredients for the cause of hurricane. When mass of warm and moist air from ocean surface starts to rise quickly and collides with the masses of cooler air , this results to the formation hurricane. As the latent heat is emitted out by condensation process, it warms the cool air leading to the rise of the air which pave the way for warmer and humid air coming from below ocean. Now the storms starts rotating. If the condition remains the same, rotating storms get powerful, eventually becoming a hurricane.
- Forest fire: Fire in the forest is called forest fire. Forest fire may be caused naturally due to lightening storms, rockfall sparks, underground coal fire, volcanic eruptions. Manmade causes for forest fire may be both intentional and unintentional. Intentional fire includes the forest management practices for the regeneration purpose whereas unintentional includes the cigarette stubs, campfire, bonfire, global warming.
- Tsunamis: Tsunami is a sudden violent change in the earth’s surface resulting from a destructive sea waves caused by underwater landslides, earthquake or volcanic eruptions or sometimes by meteorite strikes. Tsunamis are supposed to
beas a series of seismic waves created as a result of underwater disturbances. Majority of tsunamis recorded are caused due to powerful earthquakes occurred asof tectonic movements. Sometimes the disturbances in underwater as a result of magma rise to the crust during volcanic activities also result causestsunamis. Shrinking of heavy land masses into the oceans due to landslide cause the displacement in water bodies and cause tsunamis.
- Drought: The prolonged period of precipitation below average, resulting to the shortage of water is drought. The constant rise in the earth temperature is the major cause for drought. Air circulations , weather patterns , moisture level of soil and wateruse practices are also the factors causing droughts.